Roman Period

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A map of Roman Britain A map of Vortigerns Britain

Roman Empire rules Britain

For centuries. the Romans and Celts dominated Western Europe, finally united under the Roman Empire, which by the second century AD governed Gaul, Britain, and all the rest of Celtic Europe save Ireland.

In Romano-British cities like Camulodunum the Celtic and Roman gods mingled in the Imperial Temple as naturally as their worshippers strolled together in the forums, markets, and baths out­side it. By then, both peoples wore togas, spoke a mix of Celtic and Latin, and learned more from the Mediterranean – like the new ideas of their fellow Roman subject. Jesus Christ.

  • 43

    Occupation

    Claudius begins Roman occupation of Britain.

  • 122

    Hadrians Wall

    The borders of Britania are established for the next 1,300 years. Rome controls everything south of Solway Firth: the Picts to the north are badly beaten but not conquered, so Emperor Hadrian builds his Wall to seal them off.

  • 190

    Too many emperors…

    Legions in Britain proclaim its governor, Clodius Albinus, as Emperor. While legions on the Danube frontier elevate the general Septemius Severus.

  • 197

    Severus wins the war

    Severus wins the war that has lasted many years. He stocks Britain with loyal soldiers and, for the first time, permits them to marry local women, recognizing their children as citizens.

  • 208

    A miracle!

    The first British saint. Albans, is martyred at Verulamium for defying a Roman magistrate.

  • 211

    Death of an Emperor

    Severus dies at Eburacum.

  • 275

    The first Saxon raids

    Saxons begin to raid Britain. To discourage them. Romans build the Saxon Shore forts in the southeast, under the Comes Utoris Saxonici (“Lord of the Saxon Shore”). Meanwhile. Picts and Irish raid the north and west. Despite this, many rich Gauls emigrate to Britain. because civil wars have left Gaul weakly defended.

  • 306

    Constantine the Great becomes Emperor

    British legions elevate Constantine the Great to Emperor. He becomes a successfull Emperor.

  • 311

    Christianity in Rome

    Christianity becomes the official religion in the Roman Empire thanks to Constantine the Great.

  • 337

    Death of an Emperor

    Constantine the Great dies after a period of illness.

  • 350

    Briton rebels…

    British legions rebel and conquer Gaul under Magentius. a son of federates.

  • 353

    …and are defeated.

    Magnetius is defeated, the war has cost Britain several legions.

  • 367

    The Barbarian Conspiracy

    Roman frontier scouts help Picts sail around Hadrian’s Wall to raid Britain; the Saxons and Irish also raid. killing the last Comes of the Saxon Shore. The people of northwest Britain, among the hardest hit, secede from the province.

  • 369

    Order is restored

    Rome sends Comes Theodosius to restore order. He defeats the barbarians by land and sea, refortifies walls and equips towns with artillery towers, permits civilians to bear arms, recognizes the northwest as the Province of Valentia (named for the current emperor), and makes sacrifices and other pagan rites illegal. Increasingly, Comess like Theodosius run the Empire.

  • 378

    Battle of Adrinople

    A Roman army is destroyed by mounted Goths. Emperor Valens killed. Cavalry becomes preminent in the Roman army
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  • 380

    Pelagius preaches

    The British theologian Pelagius finishes preaching in Britain and moves to Gaul.

  • 383

    Magnus Maximus rises to power

    The British general Magnus Maximus ennobles Cambrian tribal chiefs to organize their own defenses against the Irish, founding the royal houses of Wales. Rumors that he is being adviced by druids spread in the army ranks.

  • 384

    Magnus Maximus becomes Emperor

    Magnus Maximus takes his legions and his Cambrians into Gaul, slays Emperor Gratlan, and rules the Empire.

  • 388

    Death of an Emperor

    Magnus Maximus is slain by Theodosius.

  • 395

    An Empire divided

    Roman Empire is divided into East (under Arcadius at Constantinople) and West (under Honorius at Ravenna).

  • 396

    Naval campaigns

    Comes Stilicho fights naval campaigns against the Picts. Irish. and Saxons, making the Channel temporarily safe.

  • 397

    Irish raids

    The Irish take land from the Demetae in Cambria, which lost its garrison under Magnus.

  • 398

    St. Ninian preaches to the Picts

    In Pictland, St. Ninnian founds the monastery of Candida Casa.

  • 402

    Empty coffins in Britain

    Whether for fear of Saxon pirates in the Channel or because Rome is bankrupt. Emperor Honorius stops sending Roman money to Britain. Roman soldiers and civil servants lose their salaries.

  • 405

    Irish raids

    Irish raid the southwest and northwest coasts. Vortigern born at Isca Silurum.

  • 406

    Failed invasion of Gaul

    Romano-British generals Marcus, and then Gratian, declare themselves emperors, lead Britain’s legions into Gaul, and are quickly defeated. At the end of the year, the barbaric Alans and Seuvi storm over the Rhine frontier into Gaul, displacing other German tribes in their path.

  • 407

    The Emperor of the Last Days

    Constantine III, a common soldier and religious fanatic declares himself the heir of Constantine the Great and the Emperor of the Last Days. He sails to Gaul with the last of the Roman garrison in Britain.

  • 408

    Barbarians!

    Extensive raids by Saxons, Irish, and Picts against ungarrisoned Britain. Many Saxon Shore forts are burned. The invaders are finally evicted by armed civilians.

  • 409

    The death of an Emperor

    Constantine III dies in Armorica.

  • 410

    “Tend to your own defenses”

    Londinium appeals to Emperor Honorius. who replies: ’’ Look to your own defenses"; Britain is no longer a Roman province. Many Romano-Britons flee to Armorica. which soon becomes known as little Britain, or Brittany.

Britain abandoned

As Rome weakens, a series of British usurpers tries to take the Imperial throne. Their efforts merely weaken Britain and anger Rome, which finally washes its hands of the dis­tant and fractious province.

  • 412

    Britain torn by riots

    Poor fight against rich, town against country, native against Roman, Catholic against Pelagian. The Basilicum in Londinium is burned, and Chrysanthus the Greek last official Diocese Vicar, is torn limb from limb.

  • 415

    The High King

    The British convene a “Supreme Collegium” of all their leaders and clerics to forge an emergency government. The Collegium offers the crown to Aldronius of Armorica. son of Magnus Maximus. who cedes it to Constantinus, his younger brother, Constantinus sails from Armorica with 2,000 soldiers, marries a British princess, and becomes chief vicar.

Constantin Vicarius

Freed from Rome, the British countryside flourishes. Provincial landlords and Celtic chiefs gain power as lords, dukes, and kings. They unite briefly under Constantin, the acting diocese vicar. Private armies rise, and foreign raiding briefly lessens. What remains of Roman-style administration collapses.

  • 420

    Plague in the cities!

    Plague – probably cholera spread by the failing Roman sewers – decimates Camulodunum, Lindum, Glevum, and Corinium.

  • 423

    Death of an Emperor

    Roman Emperor Honorius dies, succeeded by several usurpers. Comes Aetius begins to reconquer Gaul with a vast army of Hun mercenaries.

  • 424

    Constans is born

    Constantin sires his first son, Constans, whom he entrusts to a monastery in Venta Belgarum.

  • 428

    Angry Gods

    Tectonic shifts or angry gods change the sea-levels. In the southeast, abandoned Roman flood controls are overwhelmed. expanding the fens and marshes. In the southwest, fertile river valleys are buried in silt. On the continent, flooding drives Frisians and Jutes from their homes.

  • 430

    Saxon tourists

    Constantin, advised by Vortigern and other counts, settles Saxon federates outside Roman towns in the south­east. They live in poverty, ill-treated by their hosts, who suspect that the federates are a way for the lords to tax and control the towns. Over the next fifteen years, the federates grow in numbers. and are joined by other Saxons from the continent.

  • 433

    Aurelius is born

    Constantin’s next son is Ambrosius Aurelius. named for his distant relative St. Ambrose.

  • 436

    Uther is born

    Constantin sires his last son, Uther. Both Aurelius and Uther are fostered by Guithelinus, Archbishop of London.

  • 438

    Barbarian raids!

    Renewed raids in the southeast by Frisians, Jutes, and others. Some residents of Roman towns retreat to old Celtic hillforts.

  • 439

    Battle of Carlion

    King Constantine defeats the the Irish chieftain Niall and expels his troops from Escavalon.

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, Ceiwyn and their unit fights in an echille in the Battle of Carlion under King Constantine with great bravery. They were given vassalage under The Lord of Sarum Rock for their great deeds in the battle.

  • 440

    Constantinus is murdered

    A Pictish spy murders Constantin. Vortigern drags Constans from the monastery and convinces the Supreme Collegium to crown him, probably hoping to use the weak, unworldly king as his puppet. Meanwhile, a new wave of Irish invade Demetae and Dumnonii lands.

  • 442

    Hun invasions on the continent

    Attila the Hun invades the Danube provinces. Comes Aetius, who now controls the Western Empire, settles Burgundian federates to block the Huns; the Burgundians feud with the continental Saxons.

  • 443

    Constans is murdered

    Constans is beheaded by his Pictish bodyguards. Vortigern is furious and leads retaliatory raids into Pictland, and his success leads the Collegium to elect him High King. Aurelius and Uther are lost when loyal men tries to get them to the Continent, to live with their uncle Aldronius in Armorica. Perhaps in response, Germanus of Auxerre returns. He heals the crippled leg of the son of Elaphias, praetor of Venta Belgarum, and converts many Belgae to the Christianity. Then he departs.

Vortigern Tyrannus

Hengest and his brother Horsa seek asylum in Britain. Vortigern gives them land, turns them against his various enemies, and marries Hengest’s daughter. As Vortigern becomes increasingly tied to Hengist’s family, his subjects and his own sons rebel against him.

  • 444

    Finn of Frisia slaughters Hnaef’s heorthwerod

    A delegation of Angles and Saxons visit King Finn of Frisia, at Finnsburgh. Finn, jealous of their lands. ambushes them and kills the Angle king Hnaef and several Saxon lords, devastating the leadership of those people. Hengest, a Jutish warrior from Hnaef’s heorthwerod, submits to Finn on behalf of the surviving chiefs, and joins Finn’s household – seemingly.

  • 445

    Pictish raids in Britain

    Hengest gets his vengeance, kills Finn, and burns Finnsburgh. He vows to lead his new followers to new lands. Meanwhile, Picts retaliate against Vortigern, raiding as far south as Glevum and Durolipons.

    Hengest and Horsa land at Thanet in Centaii (Kent) with shiploads of Saxon warriors. Vortigern gives them the marshy lands – not as federates, but as rulers – in return for their military service.

    A large Pictish raidingforce reaches Salisbury, a small part of Vortigerns troops take refuge in old fort Wardour. The fort is besieged in Spring. The fort falls in late autumn after the old roman walls falls to roman sappers forced to work for the Picts. Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, Ceiwyn manages to escape with parts of the troops.

  • 446

    The Battle of Lincoln

    Together with Hengest and Horsa, King Vortigern defeats the Pictish Chietfain Aifric and pushes back the Pictish invation of Britain.

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn fights in the Battle of Lincoln.

  • 450

    A royal Marriage

    Vortigern marries Rowena, daughter of Hengest. Hengest receives the Cantiacii civitas as her brideprice. naming it Kent. Vortigern’s horrified sons fear for their own inheritances.

    During the wedding Cadwallon (?) notices that Rowena was pregnant, which means she had an affair with the King before they were married.

  • 451

    The Battle of Chalons

    King Vortigern sends a small contingent of troops to fight with Flavius Aëtius against the great general Attila of the Huns.

    Cerdic is born to Vortigern and Rowena.

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn is sent with the troups to the continent after having displeased the King at the wedding.

  • 453

    Attilla is murdered

    Attila is murdered by his Germanic wife (“lldico” to Romans. “Kreimhild” to Saxons).

  • 454

    Vortigern claims more land

    Vortigern claims the Parisi civitas when their king dies without heir. Southeastern nobles conspire with Vortigern·s adult sons, Vortimer and Katigern. to over­throw Vortigern and Hengist.

  • 455

    Rudderch dies

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn looses their lord when the old warrior Rudderch dies after a time of illness. His young son takes over and they swear him fealty.

    Vortigern moves Cornovii warriors to Durnnonia and Votadini to Cambria, where they expel the Irish. Vortigern is persuaded to settle Saxons under Hengests sons Octa and Eossa in former Parisi lands, founding Nohaut and Deira. Shiploads of continental Saxons flock to the new theods.

    In Italy, jealous rivals murder Count Aetius and Emperor Valentinian III, plunging the Empire into anarchy.

  • 457

    Battle of Kent

    Vortimer and Katigern lead rebellions against their father. The Parisi and Iceni try to eject the Saxons near Lindum but are defeated. Vortimer and Katigern invade Kent with the southeasterners, meeting Hengest and Horsa at Aegelesthrep. Horsa and Katigern kill each other. The British retreat, killing enough Saxons for a partial victory. Hengest appoints his son Aesc as wigfruma and regent of Kent, and buries Horsa.

  • 457

    Battle of Kent

    King Vortigern defeats the rebels of Kent with the aid of Hengest and Horsa.

    The Pictish Chieftain Drust mac Erp dies, leaving the united Picts in disarray.

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn fights in the Battle of Kent together with their Lord Robyn.

  • 460

    Rules of Hospitality

    Many britons from the Battle of Kent and other skirmishes flee Britain for Brittany. Vortigern calls them traitors .

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn visits the Easter Feast in Sarum.

    The Adventure of the Rules of Hospitality
    The rules of Hospitality is broken in Castle DuPlain, and the culprit is taken to Llud castle.

  • 461

    The Lost Legion

    Vortimer and several allies in Britain declare rebellion, amongst the warlord fighting against the King is Robyn.

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn holds hundred court. Cadwallon is ruled to pay compensation for causing a woman to run away with her child.

    The Adventure of The Dragon Banner
    Under the ruse of deception Cadwallon, Ceiwyn, Edern and Bryn accepted a quest from High King Vortigern himself to fetch a lost roman banner.

  • 462

    White Dragon Roars

    Vortimers armies split in three. The Western armies, led by Vortimer himself tries and fails to stop Dux Eldol of Glevums armies. The reserves are lured into a trap, and the Eastern armies loose outside Londinium after not getting the support they need.

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn defend their families as Chillmark is attacked during Morwennas funeral.

    Battle of Bath, and the Saxon Deceit.

    The Battle of Glevum

    The Battle of Londinium

    The Battle of Regulbium

  • 463

    The Night of Long Knives

    The Night of Long Knives takes place, more than 400 chieftains and tribal lords are killed

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn swears the Oath of Crows.

    Cadwallon, Edern, Bryn, and Ceiwyn Manages to save some of the children and women of their families, making sure the family lines did not end.

    Stin, wife of Siegberht births a son. She names him Saexwolf. Stories goes that he tore of his own umbilical cord at birth.

Aurelius Ambrosius, Chief Dragon

Full out war rolls out over Britain as Hengist claims Logres as his own, Aurelius Ambrosius and his brother Uther arrive from Brittany and manage to defeat both Vortigern and Hengist over many years of battle. But the saxons keep coming and claim more land on the coasts. Aurelius modernizes large parts of Britain and make feodalism a new system of goverment.

  • 464

    The Fatherless Boy

    Vortigern, with his Saxons, marches back and forth across Britain, extracting tribute and plunder. Many more Britons flee the land.

    Vortigern escapes to his lands in Cambria, where he begins construction of the impregnable Tower of Genoreu – but each day’s work is destroyed by the next morning. Wise men tell him that he must sprinkle the blood of a fatherless boy on the foundation stones. The search for the boy begins.

    In Ireland, St. Patrick converts the high king to Christianity.

    Roderick of Sarum is squired, preparing for his future role as Count

  • 465

    Wipped

    Battle of Wippedesfleot
    Southeasterners, led by the Cantiacii, battle Hengist and Aesc at Wippedesfleot. Four thousand Britons die, destroying the Cantiacii, while the Saxons lose only ninety-odd ceorls and a thegn, Wipped, for whom the place was named.

    Prince Alain is born in Escavalon

  • 466

    Red Dragon Roars

    The fatherless boy is found: Myrdinn Emrys. He predicts that Aurelius and Uther, the sons of Constantin, will invade this year.

    Aurelius and Uther land in Cornwall with 10,000 Armoricans, Occitanians, and Britons. Vortigern leads the Saxons to a great battle at lsca Dumnoniorum – then flees, leaving the Saxons to be defeated.

    Aurelius Ambrosius begins taking oaths of fealty and knighting warriors from his armies.

    Amig and Elad is knighted by Aurelius himself for their bravery in the battle.

    All across the land, discontented nobles muster their armies and join him.

    Vortigern seeks to escape, but his Saxon allies go back home to Kent, and many other allies desert him.

  • 467

    Red Dragon Roars

    Siege of Carlion

    After besieging a portion of Vortigern’s army at Carlion, Aurelius Ambrosius marches through the entire island, accepting the submission of those loyal to Vortigern.

    Vortigern flees to Genoreu.

  • 468

    Hand me that meat whelp!

    Cadry ap Cadwallon, Content Not Found: gammond, Maelgwyn ap Ceiwyn and Melkin of Marwth begin training as pages, they spend part of the year serving the lords of Sarum.

  • 469

    The impregnable tower?

    Battle of Mount Snowdon

    Vortigern dies from a fire within his tower.

    Battle of Maisbeli

    Battle of Conigsborough

    Count Eldol of Glevum and Duke Gorlois of Cornwall drag Hengist from his heorthwerod and kill him.

    Ulfius is knighted only 17 years old in Silchester, he receives all his father’s lands. And is given the title of Duke since is supposedly is good friends with Aurelius

    Aurelius divides the country into defensive dukedoms (dux militium) based on old roman titles and newer additions.

  • 470

    Stealing the Giants Ring

    Merlin and Uther invade Ireland and steal the Giant’s Ring from Cill Dara, embarrassing King Cillomanius (the Ui Cennsealaigh founder, Eanna Cennsealaigh).

    Merlin uses magic and merges the Giant’s Ring with Stonehenge on the site of the Long Knives massacre.

    Aurelius starts placing his Armoricans in empty lands as feudal vassals.

  • 471

    More Saxons arrive

    Many Saxons come over from the Continent and settle in Kent under their king Aesc.

    Roderick of Sarum is knighted in a big ceremony. He is immediately given the title of Count and swears loyalty to Aurelius.

  • 473

    Defeated!

    Battle of Appledore:
    Aesc lands in Kent with an army of continental Saxons. He defeats Aurelius at the Battle of Appledore and is acknowledged King of Kent. Aesc invites more Saxons to Kent, solidifying his power. Aurelius begins building forts on the Saxon-British border.

    Roderick of Sarum is knighted in a big ceremony. He is immediately given the title of Count and swears loyalty to Aurelius.

  • 474

    Saxon pillaging

    The Saxons of Kent roam and pillage the land. Only fortified places are safe, and the peasants suffer terribly

    Cadry ap Cadwallon, Content Not Found: gammond, Maelgwyn ap Ceiwyn and Melkin of Marwth begin training as squires in Vagon. To repay an old debt. Amig takes on Cadry and Melkin and Elad takes on Gammond and Maelgwyn.

  • 477

    Suth Seaxe

    Battle of Cymensora:
    Saxons led by Aelle and his sons land at Cymensora and seize the Regnenses lands. Regnenses exiles crowd the Belgae and Atrebates, or vanish into the Andredesweald.

    Many of the peasants flee, but others are captured and enslaved. Ælle renames the land Suth Seaxe. Aurelius Ambrosius marches with his army to oppose the foe, who is reinforced at the last moment by the Saxons from Kent. Ambrosius is lucky to escape with his army. The Saxons remain.

  • 478

    Suth Seaxe as vassals

    Aurelius grudgingly acknowledges Aelle’s ownership of the Regnenses civitas, appointing him vassal-king of the Suth Saexe.

  • 479

    The British Channel contended

    Battle of the Channel:
    For years, Aurelius Ambrosius has been building a fleet of ships in the ports of his western lands. In this year, he musters his army and sets sail, sweeping around the southern coast, where he destroys the fleets of the Saxons in Britain. Then he sails to the Continent, destroying all the hostile shipping as he goes.

Roman Period

Oath of Crows ikabodo